IMPACTO DE LA IGLESIA CATÓLICA EN LA EDUCACIÓN EN MÉXICO

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La educación durante  la colonia

 En la colonia se distinguen diversos tipos de enseñanza: la evangelizadora, el adiestramiento en artes y oficios, la femenina, la formación religiosa y la universitaria. Las actividades educativas fueron asumidas por diversas órdenes religiosas. A partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, los jesuitas llegarían a ejercer una gran influencia intelectual en la sociedad novohispana.

En la nueva España, la educación escolar fue una empresa de poca magnitud pero de gran importancia para la consolidación ideológica y religiosa del dominio español. La Conquista, en este sentido, no fue sólo producto de la supremacía técnica y militar sino también un proceso de implantación, sustitución, eliminación y/o combinación de ciertas concepciones y categorías mentales y de nuevos esquemas y formas de vida. No obstante, la inicial preocupación por la evangelización y la formación intelectual de los indios fue desplazada por la atención casi exclusiva hacia los criollos. La educación para los indígenas fue perdiendo importancia y se les excluyó de los niveles educativos superiores.

Durante las primeras décadas de la Conquista, los franciscanos ofrecieron educación en internados conventuales a los hijos de señores y principales mexicas, con el doble objetivo de enseñarles la lectura y la escritura del español y evangelizar a los indígenas. Esos jóvenes mexicas participaron eficazmente en la labor catequizadora. Los internados adoptaron elementos de los templos-escuelas que guardaban semejanzas con la educación conventual, como el rigor de la vida de los internos, la retórica ceremonial y formación moral.

 

La educación en el período post-independiente

 Precedente del movimiento de emancipación que México iniciara en 1810, con el histórico Grito de Dolores, en la Constitución de Cádiz, relacionada con la educación Pública, en su artículo 336 decía; “En todos los pueblos de la Monarquía se establecerían escuelas de primeras letras, en las que se enseñara a los niños a leer, escribir y contar y el catecismo de la Religión Católica”.

El papel de la iglesia en la educación y la noción de libertad educativa fueron puntos de conflicto desde 1824. Los liberales de las primeras décadas del México independiente propusieron la libertad de enseñanza con el objetivo de acabar con el monopolio eclesiástico sobre la educación. Al mismo tiempo, pensaban que cualquier intervención del Estado en la educación destruía la doctrina liberal. Sin embargo, el Presidente Valentín Gómez Farías, expidió el 23 de octubre de 1833, una ley en la que se estableció por primera vez en México el principio de la libre enseñanza, pero en 1834 fue suprimida por la respuesta adversa de los sectores conservadores.

El estado laico y la libertad religiosa

 El estado laico es aquella organización política que no establece una religión oficial, es decir que no señala una religión en particular como la religión propia del pueblo, que por lo mismo merece una especial protección política y jurídica. En este sentido, el estado laico es el opuesto al estado confesional, que establece una determinada religión como religión oficial. La razón de ser estado laico es permitir la convivencia pacífica y respetuosa, dentro  de la misma organización política, de diferentes grupos religiosos. Por eso el complemento natural y necesario del Estado laico es el reconocimiento y protección jurídica de la libertad religiosa de los ciudadanos, de modo que cada uno tenga la libertad de elegir y seguir la religión que prefiera o no elegir ninguna.

La religión católica fue impuesta con violencia en México a nuestros antecesores indígenas. Los españoles en tiempos de la conquista se aprovechaban de los hijos de señores y mexicas importantes para enseñarlos a leer y escribir con el único objetivo de que pudieran aprender de su religión y así ellos la fueran transmitiendo de generación en generación hasta hoy en día, pero no contaban con que primeramente el presidente Gómez Farías con un intento fallido por intervención de los sectores conservadores, y poco tiempo después el presidente Benito Juárez implementarían leyes para separar a la iglesia del estado y tener un estado laico como se describe en la introducción y así favorecer el desarrollo de la educación sin influencia de la iglesia católica en el proceso, método que hizo que la educación creciera exponencialmente en todo el país.

Ahora, estamos hablando de la niñez con un grado de madurez en el que lo que les dicen sus compañeros y el trato de los maestros hacia ellos influye mucho en su formación como persona y en su carácter, la educación para esos niños que pertenecían a familias con creencias distintas era casi imposible que surtiera un efecto positivo dado que no se sentían a gusto en la institución educativa rodeados de personas que tienen creencias diferentes a las suyas e incluso podrían ser discriminados.

Además, son temas que no deben influir en la educación pública, las enseñanzas religiosas y el respeto hacia los demás son valores y creencias que se adquieren desde nuestros hogares, las instituciones públicas del sector académico deben ser totalmente laicas para favorecer el desarrollo socio-económico de un país y la cultura de sus habitantes.

 

 

REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

Goddard, J. (2002). Estado laico y libertad religiosa. Cd. De México, México. Instituto de investigaciones jurídicas de la UNAM.

Gonzalbo, Pilar. (1985). El humanismo y la educación en la Nueva España. México. SEP y el caballito.

Kuzuhiro Kobayashi, José María. (1992). La educación en la Historia de México. Cd. De México, México. El colegio de México.

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